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Problema

Automatización de una empresa de cerveza: detección y expulsión de botellas defectuosas

Problema 2

Automatización de una empresa de cerveza para detección y expulsión de botellas defectuosas.

Proceso:

He incluido un sensor Dr para el robot para saber cuando ha dado una vuelta completa aunque no haría falta.

La cinta A se activará cuando pulsemos Marcha y enclavándola y no-stop.

Cuando detecta una botella defectuosa la guardaremos en una báscula (función Keep), reseteándola cuando detecte una botella en S1.

Tendremos un SFT (registro de desplazamiento), el cual en IN estará el resultado de la báscula anterior y el contador será de nuevo S1. La resetearemos  al principio de ejecución del programa (1815) o cuando una vez el robot haya cambiado de cinta vuelva a su posición inicial (flanco de subida de Dr). Cada vez que llegue un pulso en IN y la báscula tenga un 1 , tendremos en el canal 200 la orden de activación del robot.

El robot se activará mediante el canal 200 y en posición inicial (Dr), dejando de funcionar cuando detecte de nuevo Dr.

Para la cinta B, está se activará cuando esté parada (la cinta B se para cuando detecta S2 para que al colocarla en la cinta no esté en movimiento y pueda caer), se haya posicionado la botella y el robot vuelva a su estado en posición. Si llega otra botella defectuosa seguida (S2), la cinta B se para, el Timer deja de contar y no vuelve a contar hasta que vuelve a posicionarse la botella encima de la cinta, y activándose de nuevo al detectar flanco de subida (DIFU) del detector Dr.

Finalmente, tendremos un contador que nos cuenta los pulsos de botellas defectuosas (s2), y cuando cuente 10 se activará una alarma, desactivándose esta cuando pulsemos Stop (A) o reinicio del proceso.

El contador se resetea cuando llega a 10 o al inicio de cada sesión.

Entradas

Salidas

M –  0001

Cinta A – 0100

A –  0002

Cinta B – 0101

S1 – 0003

Robot –   0102

S2 – 0004

Alarma –  0103

Dr – 0005


REPRESENTACIÓN DEL SOFTWARE DEL PLC

MEDIANTE DIAGRAMA DE CONTACTOS PARA AUTÓMATA OMRON


               0001  (M)                                          0002 (A)

                                                                                                                                    HR01

                                                                                                                                   

                                  HR 001

           

                                       HR 001

                                                                                                                                    100

  

                                                           0004 (S2)                                          

                                                                                                                            St

                                                                                                                                     KEEP

                                                            0003 (S1)                                                                     HR 002

                                                                                                                            Rt

                                                           HR002             

                                                                                                                              IN   

                                                                                                                                     SFT

                                                                                                                                        02

                                                           0003 (S1)                                                     CP      02

                               

                   

                                                           1815                                                            Rt

      

                                                           1001


 

                                                             

                    0005 (Dr)            0200                   HR 001                       

                                                                                                                            St

                                                                                                                                   KEEP

                                   1001                                                                                       HR 003

                                                                                                                            Rt

                                               0005 (Dr)                                                        

                                                                                                                                DIFU

           

                                                                                                                                 1001


                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                     


                                HR 003           HR 001

                                                                                                                                 102


                                1001                                                                                     St

                                                                                                                                 KEEP

                                                                                                                                 HR 004

                        0004 (S2)

                                                                                                                            Rt

                        TIM 01

           


                           HR001               HR004                                                                       TIM 01  

                                                                                                                                #200


                                                                                                                                101

                                  0004 (S2)                                                                                                                                                                                                                           CP                                                                                                                                                         CNT 02                     CNT 02                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Rt       #10

                                1815

                                                                                   

CNT02                                0002 (A)    

                                                                                                                                   103

                              

                               103


                          

                            END (01)     

REPRESENTACIÓN DEL SOFTWARE DEL PLC

MEDIANTE LISTA DE INSTRUCCIONES PARA AUTÓMATA OMRON

Dirección

Instrucción

Dato

Referencia al diagrama de contactos

0001

LD

0001

Marcha

0002

OR

HR 0001

0003

AND NOT

0002

No paro

0004

OUT

HR 0001

Salida auxiliar

0005

LD

HR 0001

0006

OUT

0100

Motor Cinta A

0007

LD

0004

Sensor S2

0008

LD

0003

Sensor S1

0009

KEEP (11)

HR 0002

Mant. Pulso S2

0010

LD

HR 0002

Sensor S2 mant.

0011

LD

0003

Sensor S1

0012

LD

1815

0013

OR

1001

0014

SFT (10)

02 02

Reg.desplaz.

0015

LD

0005

Detector Robot

0016

AND

0200

Pulso Activar

0017

AND

HR 0001

Marcha general

0018

LD

1001

Reset al ver DR

0019

KEEP (11)

HR 0003

0020

LD

0005

0021

DIFU (13)

1001

Flanco UP de DR

0022

LD

HR 0001

0023

AND

HR 0003

0024

OUT

0102

Activa Robot

0025

LD

1001

0026

LD

0004

Sensor S2

0027

OR

TIM 01

0028

KEEP (11)

HR 0004

0029

LD

HR 0001

0030

AND

HR 0004

0031

TIM

01

#200

20 s. De cinta B

0029

OUT

101

Motor Cinta B

0030

LD

0004

Sensor S2

0031

LD

CNT 02

Contador

0032

OR

1815

Resetea

0033

CNT

02

#10

Contador de 10

0034

LD

CNT 02

0036

OR

0103

Enclava Alarma

0037

AND NOT

0002

No paro

0038

OUT

0103

Alarma

0039

END (01)


ESQUEMA ELÉCTRICO DE LOS ELEMENTOS

DE CONEXIÓN AL AUTÓMATA


 

                    o        o        o          o        o                               o        o        o

                    

                    o        o        o          o        o                               o        o        o


                   T1     T2      T3          M      P                              S1      S2      Dr

                                                                                                                     

              + 24                                                                                                     COM

               COM                                                                                                                                                                                            High Speed

                                                                                                         

                     PLC OMRON

               

                220 V

                                                    0100                                     0101                                  0102                          0103

                   

                             o                                 o                               o                         o


                       

                                    FUS1                              FUS2                          FUS3                      FUS4


                                    

                                 RELÉ                                             RELÉ                                          RELÉ                       RELE    

                                               AL MOTOR                              AL MOTOR                                  AL MOTOR                 ALARMA

                          Cinta A                       Cinta B                      Robot                     Al


    N


    F

                                                                                             

           


ESQUEMA ELÉCTRICO DE LA PARTE DE POTENCIA

N

R                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       S                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    T                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             008                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             0006                                                      0007                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         I >    I >    I  >                                         I >  I >    I >                                           I >   I >     I >                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 100                                                        101                                                         102                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         M 3 ~                               M 3 ~                                        M 3 ~                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          


CÁLCULO SECCIÓN DE LOS CABLES Y DEL TIPO DE TUBO PROTECTOR Y SECCIÓN

Si el motor es de una potencia de 10 kW, determinar la sección de los cables si se utilizan cables unipolares de cobre con cubierta de P.V.C e instalado dentro de un tubo, en una instalación subterránea. Determinar también los tubos protectores de los cables (tipo de tubos que se coge y su sección).



Hemos cogido un factor de potencia cos j=0,85.

Según el R.E.B.T. suponiendo la corriente de 30,87 A, y durante el arranque del motor pudiendo doblarse (61,74 A) y según la instrucción MI BT 007 para una terna de cables unipolares (tres más uno) con aislamiento de policloruro de vinilo cogemos una sección nominal de 6 mm2  hasta un máximo de 63 A. Siendo los colores negro, gris y marrón en las 3 fases de alimentación y azul en el caso del neutro.

Para la selección del tubo protector, según la instrucción MIE BT 019 del R.E.B.T,  seleccionaremos un tubo protector aislante flexible de policloruro de vivnilo (PVC), soportando hasta 60ºC sin deformación. Siendo el diámetro interior nominal para un solo conductor de 13 mm.


REPRESENTACIÓN DEL DIAGRAMA DE CONTACTOS PARA AUMENTO DE FIABILIDAD (térmicos, redundancias,..)


               0001  (M)                               0002 (A)        TMA      TMB     TMR   

                                                                                                                                    HR01

                                                                                                                                   

                                  HR 001

           

                                       HR 001                          0002 (A)         0006 (TMA)

                                                                                                                                    100

  

                           HR 0001                    0004 (S2)                 0003 (S1)                           

                                                                                                                            St

                                                                                                                                     KEEP

                                                            0003 (S1)                 0004 (S2)                                   HR 002

                                                                                                                            Rt

                           HR 0001                     HR002            

                                                                                                                              IN   

                                                                                                                                     SFT

                                                                                                                                        02

                           HR 0001                    0003 (S1)                   0004 (S2)                    CP      02

                               

                   

                                                           1815                                                            Rt

      

                                                           1001


 

                                                            

                    0005 (Dr)            0200                   HR 001                       

                                                                                                                            St

                                                                                                                                   KEEP

                                   1001                                                                                       HR 003

                                                                                                                            Rt

                        HR 0001           0005 (Dr)                                                        

                                                                                                                                DIFU

           

                                                                                                                                 1001


                                                                                                                                            

                                                                                                                     


                                HR 003           HR 001              0008 (TMR)

                                                                                                                                 102


                               1001                     HR 0001

                                                                                                                          St

                                                                                                                                 KEEP

                                                                                                                                 HR 004

                        0004 (S2)

                                                                                                                            Rt

                TIM 01


           


                           HR001               HR004                                                                      TIM 01  

                                                                                                                                #200

                                                                                                          0007 (TMB)

                                                                                                                                101

                                  0004 (S2)                    0003 (S1)                                                                                                                                                                                          CP                                                                                                                                                         CNT 02                               CNT 02                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Rt       #10

                                1815

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

CNT02                           0002 (A)     HR 0001  

                                                                                                                                   103

                              

                               103


                          

                            END (01)     


REPRESENTACIÓN DEL SOFTWARE DEL PLC

MEDIANTE LISTA DE INSTRUCCIONES PARA AUTÓMATA OMRON

Dirección

Instrucción

Dato

Referencia al diagrama de contactos

0001

LD

0001

Marcha

0002

OR

HR 0001

0003

AND NOT

0002

No paro

0004

AND

0006

Térmico Cinta A

0005

AND

0007

Térmico Cinta B

0006

AND

0008

Térmico Robot

0007

OUT

HR 0001

Salida auxiliar

0008

LD

HR 0001

0009

AND NOT

0002

No paro

0010

AND

0006

Térmico Cinta A

0011

OUT

0100

Motor Cinta A

0012

LD

0004

Sensor S2

0013

AND

HR 0001

0014

AND NOT

0003

NO Sensor S1

0015

LD

0003

Sensor S1

0016

AND NOT

0004

NO Sensor S2

0017

KEEP (11)

HR 0002

Mant. Pulso S2

0018

LD

HR 0001

0019

AND

HR 0002

Sensor S2 mant.

0020

LD

HR 0001

0021

AND

0003

Sensor S1

0022

AND NOT

0004

NO Sensor S2

0023

LD

1815

0024

OR

1001

0025

SFT (10)

02 02

Reg.desplaz.

0026

LD

0005

Detector Robot

0027

AND

0200

Pulso Activar

0028

AND

HR 0001

Marcha general

0029

LD

1001

Reset al ver DR

0030

KEEP (11)

HR 0003

0031

LD

HR 0001

0032

AND

0005

0033

DIFU (13)

1001

Flanco UP de DR

0034

LD

HR 0001

0035

AND

HR 0003

0036

AND

0008

Térmico Robot

0037

OUT

0102

Activa Robot

0038

LD

1001

0039

AND

HR 0001

0040

LD

0004

Sensor S2

0041

AND NOT

0003

NO Sensor S1

0042

OR

TIM 01

0043

KEEP (11)

HR 0004

0044

LD

HR 0001

0045

AND

HR 0004

0046

TIM

01

#200

20 s. De cinta B

0047

AND

0007

Térmico Cinta B

0048

OUT

101

Motor Cinta B

0049

LD

0004

Sensor S2

0050

AND NOT

0003

NO Sensor S1

0051

LD

CNT 02

Contador

0052

OR

1815

Resetea

0053

CNT

02

#10

Contador de 10

0054

LD

CNT 02

0055

OR

0103

Enclava Alarma

0056

AND NOT

0002

No paro

0057

AND

HR 0001

0058

OUT

0103

Alarma

0059

END (01)


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